RPM neutral wettability relative permeability modification technology
RPM relative permeability modification technology is engineered to alter the wettability of proppant to neutral, preventing the retention of water-based fluid in the proppant pack. As a result, RPM technology increases the effective fracture length, conductivity and permeability of the pack to hydrocarbons, leading to higher production and increased ultimate recovery.
Altering the proppant pack wettability to neutral virtually eliminates capillary forces that prevent water and water-based fracture fluids becoming trapped after fracturing or during production. This means an increase in fracture permeability.
RPM technology alters the wettability of the proppant
pack to neutral with a 90° contact angle
Remove capillary effects
Most conventional proppant is strongly water wet, exhibiting a contact angle <90°. This allows for easy wetting and dispersion of the water-based fracturing fluids in the fracture, causing them to become trapped in the pore throats of the proppant pack.
RPM technology alters the wettability of the proppant surface to neutral. This leads to a contact angle of ~90°, which virtually eliminates capillary forces that prevent water and water-based fracture fluids from becoming trapped after fracturing and during production. This leads to an increased hydrocarbon permeability.
Increase fracture fluid clean-up, fracture length and conductivity
Proppant enhanced with RPM technology improves fracture fluid clean-up by reducing the retention of water-based fracture fluid, which increases conductivity. The improved fracture clean-up and the reduction in conductivity impairment due to gel damage lead to an increased effective fracture length.
Reduce multiphase flow pressure drop
Multiphase pressure drop effects in the fracture can reduce production and ultimate recovery by favoring one hydrocarbon or fluid phase over another.
When two phases are present in the proppant pack, they compete for the same space to flow. By reducing capillary pressures through neutral wettability proppant, we can significantly reduce the amount of water competing for this space, ultimately allowing more oil production.
Enhance the performance of any CARBO ceramic proppant
RPM technology is a surface modification coating applied during the manufacturing process and is available with any CARBO ceramic proppant. Treated proppant is compatible with most fracturing fluids and the coating is stable up to 400°F (205°C) so they can be used in most stimulated wells.
Field-proven to significantly increase production
Fractures built with proppant enhanced with RPM technology have been proven in field trials to deliver a significant increase in both oil and gas production, with a rapid payback on the investment in RPM technology.
The well enhanced with RPM technology:
- Produced an incremental 15% after 1 year
- Produced first gas nearly twice as fast as the untreated well
- Delivered a 15% increase in overall production
- Experienced an 80% increase in condensate production, indicating the potential effectiveness of RPM technology for combating condensate banking