QUANTUM far-field propped fracture imaging service

QUANTUM far-field propped fracture imaging service utilizes electromagnetic methods to detect proppant in the far-field.

The service provides a detailed understanding of the location of proppant and propped fractures in the far-field. These insights are critical to the optimization of well performance and drainage, such as fracture extension and well spacing, height growth, proppant/fluid volume usage, parent well depletion effects and cluster efficiency.

Overcome the limitation of current fracture detection and analysis methods

Current fracture diagnostics evaluation techniques such as fiber optic, microseismic, chemical tracers, pressure matching and modeling can only infer where fractures have been created, rather than those that have been propped.

Near-wellbore proppant detection is limited by a depth of investigation of less than two feet. QUANTUM imaging detects proppant placed in the frac, even if it is located hundreds of feet from the wellbore.

Electromagnetic differencing technique enabled by unique technology

The QUANTUM service uses differencing techniques to create an image of proppant and propped fracture location. A surface electromagnetic array is deployed, and the electric/magnetic fields are measured both before and after the unique CARBO iON™ electrically conductive proppant has been placed. Advanced modeling is then used to invert the before- and after-frac response to locate the proppant.

CARBO iON electrically conductive ceramic proppant

The imaging methodology relies on changes in the electric- and magnetic-field response due to the proppant placed in the subject fractures. To provide “contrast” between the before and after frac signals, a specially coated proppant which exhibits a very high electrical conductivity (100s – 1,000s of S/m) is used.

Service deployment

The deployment of QUANTUM service technology occurs in three distinct phases:

QUANTUM 3 phases

Download QUANTUM service profile for full deployment process and more information.

Highly visual results

The imaging of the propped fracture geometry is determined through parametric inversion of the acquired pre- and post-frac electromagnetic data.

The service analysis:

  • Determines the fracture geometry including frac heights, frac widths and frac lengths, ultimately the Propped Reservoir Volume™ (PRV™)
  • Assesses uncertainty in the image, by providing a total cumulative probability index taking into account in-situ conductivity, fracture complexity and noise.
QUANTUM service image
QUANTUM service image of the propped fractures of two wells, one stage in each well, each containing two perforation clusters (adapted from URTeC 2019-135)

QUANTUM service highlights to date

The service has been developed through extensive field trials with numerous operators.

  • Key highlights include: Successfully imaged and measured frac heights, frac widths and frac lengths as deep as 9,500’ TVD
  • Imaged separate fractures in a single stage with two perf clusters (20ft apart)
  • Observed fracture asymmetry in the vertical and lateral direction which has helped to understand the impacts of different fluids, proppant settling, stress shadowing and parent-child wells
  • With confidence, imaged 75-100% of the propped fracture volume with 1-5% misfit in matching the data
  • Provided cumulative probability images of proppant dimensions and location with an identified +/- 1 Standard Deviation movement in all dimensions and directions
  • Provided guidance on horizontal and vertical well spacing and the impacts of different completion designs

Fracture and proppant technology matrix

Fracture and proppant technology matrix

Click to enlarge

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